UART

UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter) is a programmable interface that allows you to communicate 1:1 with a UART peripheral.

Figure: UART interface diagram

UART interface diagram

UART is an interface for exchanging data with peripherals. It is an asynchronous method that transmits data without a clock line, and consists of only 2 data lines: transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx). UART performs 1:1 communication.

Figure: UART data frame

UART data frame

The UART data frame consists of start (1 bit), data (5~8 bit), parity (1 bit) and stop (1 bit):

  • Start bit

    Indicates the start of the communication before sending data and holds it for a bit time length.

  • Data

    Transmits 5 to 8 bits of data.

  • Parity bit

    Generates and transmits a parity value for error verification, and determines a receiving side error. The following options are available: None, Even, and Odd parity. Selecting None removes this bit.

  • Stop bit

    Indicates the termination of the communication and holds 1 or 2 bits.

  • Baud rate

    Asynchronous transmission/receiving speeds must be matched to the peripheral. For this purpose, the number of signals transmitted per second can be synchronized with a peripheral. It is called the Baud.

If a device supports a 5-wire UART port, hardware flow control can be used to increase the reliability of the data transmission. Software flow control can also be used to increase reliability.

Opening and Closing a Handle

To open and close a handle:

  1. To open a UART handle, use the peripheral_uart_open() function:

    int port = 4; /* ARTIK 530 : UART0 */
    peripheral_uart_h uart_h;
    peripheral_uart_open(port, &uart_h);
    

    The port parameter required for this function must be set according to the following tables.

    Table: ARTIK 530

    Pin name Port (parameter 1)
    UART0_RX UART0_TX 4

    Table: Raspberry Pi 3

    Pin name Port (parameter 1)
    UART0_RX UART0_TX 0
    Note For more information on the pin names and locations, see Supported Protocols.
  2. To close a UART handle that is no longer used, use the peripheral_uart_close() function:
    peripheral_uart_close(uart_h);
    

Setting the Baud Rate

To set the baud rate, use the peripheral_uart_set_baud_rate() function with a baud rate value:

  • PERIPHERAL_UART_BAUD_RATE_0 ~ PERIPHERAL_UART_BAUD_RATE_230400
peripheral_uart_set_baud_rate(uart_h, PERIPHERAL_UART_BAUD_RATE_9600);

Setting the Byte Size

To set the byte size, use the peripheral_uart_set_byte_size() function with 1 of the following byte size types:

  • PERIPHERAL_UART_BYTE_SIZE_5BIT: Byte size is 5 bits.
  • PERIPHERAL_UART_BYTE_SIZE_6BIT: Byte size is 6 bits.
  • PERIPHERAL_UART_BYTE_SIZE_7BIT: Byte size is 7 bits.
  • PERIPHERAL_UART_BYTE_SIZE_8BIT: Byte size is 8 bits.
peripheral_uart_set_byte_size(uart_h, PERIPHERAL_UART_BYTE_SIZE_7);

Setting the Parity Bit

To set the parity bit, use the peripheral_uart_set_parity() function with 1 of the following parity types:

  • PERIPHERAL_UART_PARITY_NONE: No parity bit.
  • PERIPHERAL_UART_PARITY_EVEN: Parity bit is even.
  • PERIPHERAL_UART_PARITY_ODD: Parity bit is odd.
peripheral_uart_set_parity(uart_h, PERIPHERAL_UART_PARITY_EVEN);

Setting the Stop Bits

To set the stop bits, use the peripheral_uart_set_stop_bits() function with 1 of the following stop bit types:

  • PERIPHERAL_UART_STOP_BITS_1BIT: 1 bit is used for stop bits.
  • PERIPHERAL_UART_STOP_BITS_2BIT: 2 bit is used for stop bits.
peripheral_uart_set_stop_bits(uart_h, PERIPHERAL_UART_STOP_BITS_2BIT);

Setting the Flow Control

To set the hardware and software flow control, use the peripheral_uart_set_flow_control() function with 1 of the following flow control types:

  • PERIPHERAL_UART_SOFTWARE_FLOW_CONTROL_NONE: No software flow control.
  • PERIPHERAL_UART_SOFTWARE_FLOW_CONTROL_XONXOFF: Software flow control uses XONXOFF.
  • PERIPHERAL_UART_HARDWARE_FLOW_CONTROL_NONE: No hardware flow control.
  • PERIPHERAL_UART_HARDWARE_FLOW_CONTROL_AUTO_RTSCTS: Hardware flow control uses RTSCTS.
peripheral_uart_set_flow_control(uart_h, PERIPHERAL_UART_SOFTWARE_FLOW_CONTROL_XONXOFF, PERIPHERAL_UART_HARDWARE_FLOW_CONTROL_AUTO_RTSCTS);

Reading and Writing Data

To read and write data:

  • To write data to a slave device, use the peripheral_uart_write() function:

    uint8_t data[2] = {0x06, 0x01};
    uint32_t length = 2;
    peripheral_uart_write(uart_h, data, length);
    
  • To read data from a slave device, use the peripheral_uart_read() function:
    uint8_t data[2];
    uint32_t length = 2;
    peripheral_uart_read(uart_h, data, length);